Research about media accountability has been quite limited in Spain. This does not mean that self-regulatory mechanisms in the Spanish media landscape have not been sufficiently developed. Research, however, has been done in a slightly dissenting manner, both in rhythm and geopolitical areas. There are large numbers of codes or recommendations about deontology in journalism, as well as press councils, audiovisual high authorities, ombudspersons and television audience associations. Journalists generally do not consider these instruments as valuable, and they are also hardly known among non-specialists. Yet it seems quite difficult to predict whether media accountability will find its place or will continue to exist in a situation of such widespread indifference. There are signs of more appreciation of top-quality information in some sectors of the population, but the audience ratings keep supporting ›junk television‹.

For more details see Salvador Alsius / Marcel Mauri / Ruth Rodríguez Martínez (2011): Spain: A Diverse and Asymmetric Landscape. In: Tobias Eberwein / Susanne Fengler / Epp Lauk / Tanja Leppik-Bork (eds.): Mapping Media Accountability – in Europe and Beyond. Cologne: Herbert von Halem Verlag, pp. 155-167.

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